The information in this article applies to standard E-451 and E-457 tow tractor vehicles – model numbers E0-034-51 and E0-034-57. Note that vehicle customization may cause variation from the information in this article.
The E-451 and E-457 tow tractors are shown below.
1. Headlight Switch: Push the top of the headlight switch to turn the lights ON. Push the bottom of the switch to turn the lights OFF.
2. Accessory Switch: The accessory switch is optional and may not be equipped on your vehicle. If equipped, this switch will control various accessories that have been added to your vehicle. Push the top of the switch to turn the accessory ON. Push the bottom of the switch to turn it OFF.
3. Battery Status Indicator: There are two available BSIs, depending on how your vehicle was ordered. Detailed description of operation can be found in the next section.
4. Hour Meter: The hour meter is optional and displays the total time the vehicle has been in operation. Time is accumulated only while the vehicle is moving with the treadle pressed.
5. Direction Control Switch: This switch determines the direction of travel.
The switch has three positions:
- FORWARD: Push the top of the switch all the way in to travel forward.
- REVERSE: Push the bottom of the switch all the way in to travel in reverse.
- OFF: There is a center position between forward and reverse; this is the “direction” OFF position. The OFF position does NOT turn the vehicle control system OFF. Use the start switch to turn the vehicle control system OFF. Refer to the start switch entry in this section for details regarding turning the vehicle control system OFF.
6. Start Switch: The start switch turns the vehicle electrical control system ON. This switch may or may not require a key to operate.
Rotate the switch clockwise to turn the vehicle system ON and counterclockwise to turn the vehicle system OFF. Note that the vehicle will not run when in the OFF position.
The switch should be in the OFF position whenever the operator leaves the approved operator position. This switch is designed to secure and disable the vehicle. The key can only be removed when the switch is in the OFF position.
7. Horn Switch: Press the horn switch to sound the horn. Release it to turn it off.
Battery Status Indicator
The Battery Status Indicator has one of two forms: a bar graph or analog gauge. Both indicate the charge state of the battery.
Battery Status Indicator: Bar Graph
The battery status indicator is located to the left of the hour meter. The battery status indicator has an LED bar graph that indicates the relative state of charge of the battery.
The top LED will light only when connected to a fully charged battery or after completing a charging cycle. Successive lower LEDs will light as the battery charge diminishes.
When the second-to-bottom LED flashes, the battery energy status is in energy reserve and should be placed on charge as soon as possible.
When the two bottom LEDs are alternately flashing, the batteries are empty and the truck should be taken out of service and charged to avoid damaging the batteries.
The BSI will reset to fully charged only after a complete charge cycle is completed. A complete charge cycle is defined as battery voltage exceeding 2.35 volts per cell for a minimum of six minutes.
Battery Status Indicator: Analog
This gauge went into production in July 2015. This gauge is a limited-range voltmeter that indicates the current voltage of the batteries. The red zone to the left is voltage range V1, the green zone is V2, the white is V3 and the red zone to the right is V4. Refer to table below for range voltages. For a more accurate status, the vehicle should be idle and not used or charged for a minimum of one hour.
Note: While charging and immediately after a charge cycle is completed, the battery voltage may greatly exceed the fully charged voltage per the gauge.
Refer to the charts below for more information.
|Battery Status at 80 degrees Fahrenheit (27 Celsius)|
|24V System||21.18 volts||25.44 volts|
|36V System||32.22 volts||38.16 volts|
Note: Battery voltage will vary with the temperature of the battery. Add 0.084 volts per battery for every 10° below 80°F and subtract 0.084 volts per battery for every 0° above 80°F.
|24v System||36v System|
|V1 Range||16-20 volts||30-32 volts|
|V2 Range||12-24 volts||32-36 volts|
|V3 Range||24-30 volts||36-40 volts|
|V4 Range||30-32 volts||40-42 volts|
Note: Accuracy of the gauge at full scale is +/- 4% at 77 degrees Fahrenheit (25 degrees Celsius).
Accelerator: The accelerator pedal is the treadle located on the right side of the floorboard positioned under the operator’s right foot. The treadle also functions as the brake pedal. Press the front of the treadle down to increase speed; release the treadle to slow down.
Brake: The brake pedal is the treadle located on the right side of the floorboard, positioned under the operator’s right foot. The treadle also functions as the accelerator pedal. Press the rear of the treadle to apply the brake. The brake is automatically released when accelerating.
The parking brake is automatically applied when the accelerator treadle is released. To firmly set the parking brake, push down on the rear of the treadle after the vehicle has come to a complete stop. The brake automatically releases when the front of the treadle is depressed.
The steering wheel and steering system are like an automobile.
To turn right, turn the steering wheel clockwise. To turn left, turn the steering wheel counterclockwise.
If equipped with tilt steering (not shown), the release lever is located to the lower left of the steering column. Pull the lever up to reposition the steering wheel.